Glossary of terms
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Two rings of muscles surrounding the rectum and anus which help to control passage of bowel movements.
Muscular opening at the end of the rectum is the outlet for solid waste.
Autonomic Nervous System
The nervous system that begins in the subcortical portion of the brain and the gut and automatically maintains the health of internal organs, smooth and striated muscle resting tone.
Treatment involving conditioning.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
Condition characterized by growth of a benign tumor inside the prostate, often resulting in voiding difficulties. Also known as benigh prostate hypertrophy.
Noncancerous tissue growth that cannot spread to other areas of the body.
Diagnostic procedure of surgically removing a tissue sample from the body and analyzing it microscopically for abnormal tissue growth.
Muscular organ located inside the pelvis for temporary storage of urine. Also called the detrusor muscle.
Test used to determine the number and ratio of red and white blood cells and platelets in an individual’s blood. Abnormal numbers can indicate infection, anemia, or cancer.
The force of the blood traveling out of the heart and down the arteries of the body.
Samples of individual’s blood that can include a blood count, sedimentation rate, glucose level, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and special tests for prostate cancer (PSA and PAP tests).
One of three muscles of the urogenital diaphragm.
Disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and spread of cells to other parts of the body. Cell growth can crowd out or interfere with normal cell function causing organ dysfunction and death of healthy cells.
Removal of testes or elimination of testicular funcion with antiandrogen drugs.
Flexible tube inserted into a body part such as the urethra (in male or female) to empty the bladder of urine.
Lower protion of the uterus that connects with the vagina.
Cancer treatment using potent drugs that attack and destroy tissue cells and interfere with the cells multiplying. These drugs are either injected or taken orally.
Chronic Pelvic Pain
Persistent pain of unexplained nature in the lower abdominal and pelvic area that is six months or longer in duration and effects physical activity, work, family and social life in a negative way.
Organ of female orgasm.
Chemical substance injected into the internal urinary sphincter region to treat incontinence.
Lower portion of large intestine leading to the rectum.
Computerized Tomography (CT scan)
A computer-enhanced x-ray technique used to examine soft body tissue.
Buidup of fluid in an area of the body that often causes pain, i.e. prostate congestion.
Hard, dry, and firm bowel movements that are difficult to pass and less frequent than normal.
Side effects of a medical treatment which would indicate the treatment is more hamful than the intended benefits.
Surgery that utilizes extreme cold to destroy undesired tissue.
Tube with light and a viewing lens at the end, which is inserted into the urethra to examine the urethra, bladder, and prostate gland.
Diagnostic procedure for urological examination allowing viewing inside the urethra and bladder.
Determination through observation or scientific tests of the existence of symptoms of medical disorders.
Any drug, food, or beverage that promotes increased urine excretion.
Uncontrolled passage of a bowel movement or smears of fecal material into underwear or inappropriate places by an individual over the age of four.
A bulging of the pouch of Douglas into the posterior vaginal wall.
Involuntary loss of urine, during sleep termed nocturnal enuresis.
Surgical incision into the perineum between the vagina and anus to ease childbirth through the vagina.
Hormone contributing to female sex characteristics, produced in female ovaries and male testicles, in adrenal glands, and fat.
A chronic painful condition of soft tissue of the body with associated symptoms of tender points, sleep disruption, and hypersensitivity to sensory input. Soft tissue includes muscle, tendon, ligament and fascia.
Physical disability or mental confusion leading to inability to void in an appropriate place.
A medical physician who specializes in the health and dysfunction of the intestines and bowel.
Lower than normal blood sugar in the blood stream.
Chemical substances made in endocrine glands and essential for human biological processes.
Treatment based on administering hormone or chemical substances that block the action of other hormones. Hormonal therapy blocks action of male hormones that promote tumor growth.
Surgical removal of the uterus.
Muscle One of the muscles forming the pelvic diaphragm/levator ani muscle group.
Inability of a man to achieve or maintain an erection of sufficient duration.
Uncontrolled loss of urine.
Symptoms of lower abdominal pain, urinary frequency and urgency, and discomfort with urination as the result of bladder dysfunction.
The external vaginal opening.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Alternating constipation and diarrhea with abdominal pain, abdominal gas, and nausea.
Muscle One of three muscles forming the urogenital diaphragm.
Pelvic muscle exercise to decrease or eliminate incontinence.
Two glandular organs that separate waste products from the blood.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Diagnostic technique using an electromagnetic field and computer analysis, which effectively evaluates soft body tissue, such as the prostate and bladder .
Cessation of menstuation, usually occurs in the late 40’s or early 50’s.
Syndrome a chronic localized pain condition of soft tissue with associated trigger points which refer pain to other areas of the body.
Neurally Mediated Hypotension
Low blood pressure, high resting heart rate and associated symptoms of pelvic pain and fatigue.
A medical physician specializing in female reproductive health and dysfunction.
Surgical removal of testicles.
Temporary inability to void, followed by uncontrollable urine flow, associated with over-distension of the bladder.
The levatgor ani muscle group, the pelvic floor.
General term referring to the muscles of the pelvic diaphragm, urogenital diaphragm and external sphincters. Sometimes referred to as the pelvic floor.
Pelvic Muscle Myalgia Syndromes
Pelvic pain related to the muscles of the pelvic floor; including subcategories of levator ani syndrom, piriformis syndrome, coccygodynia, vaginisimus, dyspareunia, proctalgia fugax, vulvodynia, vulvar vestibulitis syndrome, and pudendal neuralgia.
Pelvic Muscle Relaxation Syndromes
Pelvic and low back pain in relation to cystocele, urethrocele, enterocele, rectocele, vaginal prolapse, and uterine prolapse.
Pelvic Rotator Cuff
Muscles A group of muscles that work as a unit to support the bladder, uterus, and bowel, maintain back alignment, and provide dynamic stability for balance and ambulation. They include the obturator internus, pelvic diaphragm, urogenital diaphragm, external sphincters, and adductor muscles.
The male organ used for urination.
Muscles Area of muscle and tissue between the vagina or scrotum and anus.
Autonomic nervous system training to regain body systems in balance and maintain homeostasis.
Firm, muscular gland that surrounds the urethra in males.
Surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland.
tis Infection of the prostate which can be acute or chronic.
Lower front part of the pelvis.
One of three muscles forming the pelvic diaphragm/levator ani muscle group.
Innervates the external urethral and anal sphincters and the pelvic and urogenital diaphragm muscles; it is part of the voluntary nervous system.
X-ray or other high-energy radiation treatment to destroy malignant, cancerous tissue.
Complete removal of the prostate gland, often used to treat prostate cancer.
Cold hands and/or feet with tri color changes of the digits from pink to white to blue, the result of capillary constriction.
A bulging of the rectum into the posterior vaginal wall.
Final several inches of the intestines below the colon and above the anus.
Loss of urine due to hyperactivitiy of the bladder muscle and /or involuntary urethral relaxation in the absence of the sensation associated with the desire to urinate. This occurs in neurogenic disorders.
A medical physician who specializes in painful conditions affecting joints, connective tissue, fascia, muscles and tendons of the body.
Circular muscle that tightens and relaxes to control the flow of urine from the urethra. There are internal and external urethral and anal sphincters.
Loss of small amounts of urine with increased intr-abdominal pressure during coughing, sneezing, laughing, jumping, running.
Two glands that produce sperm and sex hormones including testosterone in males (testes).
Localized areas that are painful when pressure is applied.
Male sex hormone that is responsible for male sexual characteristics.
Localized areas that are painful and refer pain to distal sites when pressure is applied.
Base of the bladder, near the bladder neck where ureters enter, it is the most sensitive area of the bladder.
Body mass caused by abnormal cell growth.
High-frquency sound waves used for medical diagnosis and treatment. An ultrasound scan (sonogram) is sound waves reflected off internal organs to produce computer-enhanced pictures of the bladder, prostate, and urethra.
Tube connecting the bladder to the outside through which urine is released.
Bulging of the urethra into the vaginal wall.
Sudden leaking of relatively larg amounts of urine when the bladder muscle contracts, over-coming the contractions of the pelvic and urogenital diaphragm and sphincter muscles.
Tests on urine to diagnose diseases and infections.
Quantities of urine backing up in the bladder which can cause bladder and kidney damage.
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
Inflammation or infection in the bladder.
Muscle that form the platform for the clitoris; the vagina and urethra pass through it.
Physician specializing in disorders of the urinary system.
Specialty area of medicine dealing with the disorder of the urinary system.
Urological Pain Syndromes
Pain and dysfunction of the bladder and urethra with subcategories of urethral syndrome, trigonitis, bladder-sphicnter dysenergia, interstitial cystitis, and prostatitis.
Descent of the uterus into the vaginal canal.
Muscular hollow organ that houses the fetus during pregnancy.
Elastic canal extending from the uterine cervix to the outside. Vaginal walls usually touch but can greatly expand, such as during childbirth.
Voluntary Nervous System
The nervous system that directs movements of the body through the cortex portion of the brain.
Subatomic high energy particle of short wave length that penetrate body tissues to produce photographic images for diagnostic purposes.